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Publications: Abstract

Player Simulation and General Adversary Structures in Perfect Multiparty Computation

Martin Hirt and Ueli Maurer

The goal of secure multiparty computation is to transform a given protocol involving a trusted party into a protocol without need for the trusted party, by simulating\/} the party among the players. Indeed, by the same means, one can simulate an arbitrary player in any given protocol. We formally define what it means to simulate a player by a multiparty protocol among a set of (new) players, and we derive the resilience of the new protocol as a function of the resiliences of the original protocol and the protocol used for the simulation. In contrast to all previous protocols that specify the tolerable adversaries by the number of corruptible players (a threshold), we consider general adversaries characterized by an adversary structure, a set of subsets of the player set, where the adversary may corrupt the players of one set in the structure. Recursively applying the simulation technique to standard threshold multiparty protocols results in protocols secure against general adversaries. The classical results in unconditional multiparty computation among a set of $n$ players state that, in the passive model, any adversary that corrupts less than $n/2$ players can be tolerated, and in the active model, any adversary that corrupts less than $n/3$ players can be tolerated. Strictly generalizing these results we prove that in the passive model, every function (more generally, every cooperation specified by involving a trusted party) can be computed securely with respect to a given adversary structure if and only if no two\/} sets in the adversary structure cover the full set of players, and in the active model, if and only if no three\/} sets cover the full set of players. The complexities of the protocols are polynomial in the number of maximal adverse player sets in the adversary structure.

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\noindent{\bf Key words.} Multiparty computation, Information-theoretic security, Player simulation, General adversaries, Adversary structures.