Information Security and Cryptography Research Group

Incoercible Multi-Party Computation and Universally Composable Receipt-Free Voting

Joël Alwen, Rafail Ostrovsky, Hong-Sheng Zhou, and Vassilis Zikas

Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2015, LNCS, Springer, vol. 9216, pp. 763-780, Aug 2015.

Composable notions of incoercibility aim to forbid a coercer from using anything beyond the coerced parties’ inputs and outputs to catch them when they try to deceive him. Existing definitions are restricted to weak coercion types, and/or are not universally composable. Furthermore, they often make too strong assumptions on the knowledge of coerced parties—e.g., they assume they known the identities and/or the strategies of other coerced parties, or those of corrupted parties—which makes them unsuitable for applications of incoercibility such as e-voting, where colluding adversarial parties may attempt to coerce honest voters, e.g., by offering them money for a promised vote, and use their own view to check that the voter keeps his end of the bargain. In this work we put forward the first universally composable notion of incoercible multi-party computation, which satisfies the above intuition and does not assume collusions among coerced parties or knowledge of the corrupted set. We define natural notions of UC incoercibility corresponding to standard coercion-types, i.e., receipt-freeness and resistance to full-active coercion. Importantly, our suggested notion has the unique property that it builds on top of the well studied UC framework by Canetti instead of modifying it. This guarantees backwards compatibility, and allows us to inherit results from the rich UC literature. We then present MPC protocols which realize our notions of UC incoercibility given access to an arguably minimal setup—namely honestly generate tamper-proof hardware performing a very simple cryptographic operation—e.g., a smart card. This is, to our knowledge, the first proposed construction of an MPC protocol (for more than two parties) that is incoercibly secure and universally composable, and therefore the first construction of a universally composable receipt-free e-voting protocol.

BibTeX Citation

    author       = {Joël Alwen and Rafail Ostrovsky and Hong-Sheng Zhou and Vassilis Zikas},
    title        = {Incoercible Multi-Party Computation and Universally Composable Receipt-Free Voting},
    editor       = {R. Gennaro and M. Robshaw},
    booktitle    = {Advances in Cryptology -- CRYPTO 2015},
    pages        = {763-780},
    series       = {LNCS},
    volume       = {9216},
    year         = {2015},
    month        = {8},
    publisher    = {Springer},

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